Seeks to better understand conflict resolution via the vehicle of time. The future is the tool by which resolution may be achieved, provided the past is also considered, and not allowed to form a barrier. To this end, looks at the reductionist answer to resolution, which the author finds lacking in effectiveness. Two other approaches to considering damage caused in the past are the ontological and epistemological, both which also have their shortcomings. The author suggests rather that by the vehicles of apology and forgiveness, reparations, and other means of contrition, the disparity between, say, two nations, may be alleviated or even dissipated. Though forgiveness may not be given for some time, the very act of apology by one nation to another holds great value. Much of this is better understood through the metaphors in comparing time and space, in which the boundary of a nation may be seen as responsibility, and a part of a nation given up to its neighbor as a point of great penitence. Also considers collective memory and its transgenerational role in forgiveness. Adapted from the source document.