A new-generation law and economics civil code is presented as a conscious project to restate Roman law's usefulness for coping with today's problems. Private law aligns incentives for people to coordinate efforts and share information in a decentralized social order and market economy. Through law and economics, Roman law will renew itself. As a paradigmatic private-law system, Roman law is eminently amenable to a state-of-the-art fusion with law and economics. Sensitivity to what drives a legal culture is vital to a project meant for generating interest in law and economics among a new generation of Latin American lawyers and judges. I feel that the economic approach to law can only have an impact within the legal and social environment of Latin American countries if law and economics adapts to Latin America's civilian legal tradition. My adaptation is the recodification of civil law in the twenty-first century along the lines of law and economics.