1. Origin, status and effects of the precautionary principle / Nicolas de Sadeleer 2. The precautionary principle in European Community health and environment law : sword or shield for the Nordic countries? / Nicolas de Sadeleer 3. Denmark / Ellen Margrethe Basse 4. Finland / Erki Hollo 5. Iceland / Aalheiur Johannsdottir 6. Norway / Hans Christian Bugge 7. Sweden / Gabriel Michanek 8. Legal status of precaution in the Nordic countries : a comparative analysis / Nicolas de Sadeleer 9. The precautionary principle and Helsinki Commission / Minna Pyhala. [et al.] 10. The precautionary approach and fisheries : a Nordic perspective / Tore Henriksen 11. Uncertainty and precaution : challenges and implications for science and the policy of genetically modified organisms / Ann Ingeborg Myhr 12. Genetically modified organisms in European Union law / Theofanis Christoforou 13. Genetically modified organisms and precaution in Norwegian law / Ole Kristian Fauchald 14. Genetically modified organisms and precaution in Finnish and Swedish law / Jussi Kauppila 15. The precautionary principle and nature conservation law : Danish experiences / Helle Tegner Anker 16. The precautionary principle in Swedish chemicals law and policy / Annika Nilsson 17. Risks, costs and alternatives in European Community environmental legislation : the case of registration, evaluation and authorization of chemicals (REACH) / Gerd Winter 18. The impact of registration, evaluation and authorization of chemicals (REACH) on the regulatory powers of the Nordic countries / Nicolas de Sadeleer 19. The legacy of the precautionary principle in US law : the rise of cost-benefit analysis and risk assessment as undermining factors in health, safety and environmental protection / Nicholas Ashford 20. Lessons from international, EU and Nordic legal regimes / Nicolas de Sadeleer.