Farmers have engaged in collective systems of conservation and innovation - improving crops and sharing their reproductive materials - since the earliest plant domestications. Relatively open flows of plant germplasm attended the early spread of agriculture; they continued in the wake of (and were driven by) imperialism, colonization, emigration, trade, development assistance and climate change. As crops have moved around the world, and agricultural innovation and production systems have expanded, so too has the scope and coverage of pools of shared plant genetic resources that support those systems. The range of actors involved in their conservation and use has also increased dramatically. This book addresses how the collective pooling and management of shared plant genetic resources for food and agriculture can be supported through laws regulating access to genetic resources and the sharing of benefits arising from their use. Since the most important recent development in the field has been the creation of the multilateral system of access and benefit-sharing under the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, many of the chapters in this book will focus on the architecture and functioning of that system. The book analyzes tensions that are threatening to undermine the potential of access and benefit-sharing laws to support the collective pooling of plant genetic resources, and identifies opportunities to address those tensions in ways that could increase the scope, utility and sustainability of the global crop commons.
Formatted Contents Note
chapter 1 The global crop commons and access and benefit-sharing laws: examining the limits of international policy support for the collective pooling and management of plant genetic resources / Michael Halewood part PART I Setting the scene: countries' interdependence on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and the imperative of international cooperation chapter 2 Demonstrating Interdependence on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture / Marleni Ramirez chapter 3 Flows of crop germplasm resources into and out of China / Fuyou Wang chapter 4 Crop and forage genetic resources: Crop and forage genetic resources: international interdependence in the face of climate change / Julian Ramirez-Villegas chapter 5 Changing rates of acquisition of plant genetic resources by International gene banks: setting the scene to monitor an impact of the International Treaty / Michael Halewood, Raj Sood, Ruaraidh Sackville Hamilton, Ahmed Amri, Ines Van den Houwe, Nicolas Roux, Dominique Dumet, Jean Hanson, Hari D. Upadhyaya, Alexandra Jorge and David Tay part PART II The history and design of the International Treaty's multilateral system of access and benefit-sharing chapter 6 A brief history of the negotiations on the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture / José Esquinas-Alcázar chapter 7 The design and mechanics of the multilateral system of access and benefit sharing / Daniele Manzella chapter 8 Protecting the interests of the multilateral system under the Standard Material Transfer Agreement: the third party beneficiary / Gerald Moore chapter 9 Plant genetic resources under the management and control of the contracting parties and in the public domain: how rich is the ITPGRFA's multilateral system? / Carlos M. Correa chapter 10 Efforts to get the multilateral system up and running: a review of activities coordinated by the Treaty's Secretariat / Selim Louafi part PART III Critical reflections chapter 11 Assessment of progress to make the multilateral system functional: incentives and challenges at the country level / Isabel López Noriega chapter 12 From negotiations to implementation: global review of achievements, bottlenecks and opportunities for the Treaty in general and for the multilateral system in particular / Godfrey Mwila chapter 13 The multilateral system of access and benefit sharing: could it have been constructed another way? / Clive Stannard chapter 14 The Moving Scope of Annex 1: the list of crops covered under the multilateral system / Bert Visser chapter 15 Building a global information system in support of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture: Caroline Ker, Selim Louafi and Myriam Sanou / Caroline Ker chapter 16 Collective action challenges in the implementation of the multilateral system of the International Treaty: what roles for the CGIAR centres?: Selim Louafi / Selim Louafi chapter 17 International and regional cooperation in the implementation of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture / Gerald Moore chapter 18 The evolving global system of conservation and use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture: what is it and where does the Treaty fit in? / Toby Hodgkin chapter 19 Institutionalizing global genetic resource commons for food and agriculture / Tom Dedeurwaerdere.