1. Crisis and reform in the public sector 2. The crisis-reform thesis : how crises can lead to reform 3. Two prison systems : pre-crisis descriptions 4. The Dutch prison service : cell-shortages and escapes (1992-1993) 5. Riots and reform in England (1990-1991) 6. The escapes from Whitemoor and Parkhurst (1994-1995) 7. Recognizing patterns of reform 8. Alternative paths to reform.