1. Why communities shame and claim 2. Memory, violence, and shaming and claiming in Acteal, Chiapas, Mexico 3. The fight for Triqui autonomy in San Juan Copala, Oaxaca, Mexico 4. Turkey : memory, "mountain Turks", and the politics of Turkification 5. Armenians and the "G" word in Turkey 6. Nahuas in El Salvador : negating "pupusas" but eating them too 7. Cultural erosion : fragile Lenca persistence in Morazan, El Salvador 8. Dynamics of shaming and claiming in comparative perspective 9. Conclusion : memory matters in shaming and claiming.