1. Antiquity : Eros, lust and self-possessed government 2. The Middle Ages : Edward II's favourites, one throne, two kings 3. The early modern age : King James, effeminacy and spineless policy 4. The Victorian Age : the rhetorical conflation of homosexuality and bad government in the Cleveland Street and Dublin Castle scandals 5. Late modernity : homosexuality, disloyalty and falling below the standards of public life.