1. Were Chinese rulers above the law? Toward a theory of the rule of law in China from early times to 1949 CE / Qiang Fang and Roger Des Forges 2. Constitutionalism with Chinese characteristics? Constitutional development and civil litigation in China / Thomas E. Kellogg 3. The politics of constitutional reform in China : rule of law as a condition or as a substitute for democracy? / Richard Balme and Yang Lihua 4. China's legislation law and the making of a more orderly and representative legislative system / Laura Paler 5. Political parties in China's judiciary / Zhu Suli 6. China's courts : restricted reform / Benjamin L. Liebman 7. Who will find the defendant if he stays with his sheep? Justice in rural China / Frank K. Upham 8. The production of legal norms : a case study of administrative detention in China / Sarah Biddulph 9. Using law for a righteous purpose : the Sun Zhigang incident and evolving forms of citizen action in the People's Republic of China / Keith J. Hand 10. Shuanggui and extralegal detention in China / Flora Sapio 11. When lawyers are prosecuted. : the struggle of a profession in transition / Fu Hualing 12. WeiQur??n (rights protection) lawyering in an authoritarian state : building a culture of public-interest lawyering / Hualing Fu and Richard Cullen 13. Riots and cover-ups : counterproductive control of local agents in China / Carl F. Minzner 14. Justice from above or below? Popular strategies for resolving grievances in rural China / Ethan Michelson 15. Public opinion supervision : a case study of media freedom in China / Anne S.Y. Cheung.