1. Introduction / Essam Yassin Mohammed 2. Using valuation to make the case for economic incentives : promoting investments in marine and coastal ecosystems as development infrastructure / Lucy Emerton 3. Promoting marine and coastal ecosystem functions through direct economic incentives : the case for multilevel good governance / Senay Habtezion 4. Payments for marine and coastal ecosystem services and the governance of common pool natural resources / Roldan Muradian 5. Integrated payments for ecosystem services : a governance path from lakes and rivers to coastal areas in China / Hebin Lin and Jeffrey A. Thornton 6. Payments for marine ecosystem services and food security : lessons from income transfer programmes / Zenebe B. Uraguchi 7. Allocation of fishing rights to support local fishermen in South Africa's Western Cape / Ron Janssen, Alison R. Joubert and Theodor J. Stewart 8. Economic and non-economic conditions affecting sustainable aquaculture : why don't small shrimp producers participate in organic certification schemes? / Biniam Samuel-Fitwi and Carsten Schulz 9. Could payment for environmental services reconcile fish conservation with small-scale fisheries in the Brazilian Amazon? / Gustavo Hallwass, Priscilia F.M. Lopes and Renato A.M. Silvano 10. Payments for hilsa fish (Tenualosa ilisha) conservation in Bangladesh / Md. Abdul Wahab, Michael J. Phillips and Essam Yassin Mohammed 11. Payments to landholders for managing water, land and ecosystems (WLE) in coastal agricultural catchments for protecting the Great Barrier Reef / Tek N. Maraseni and Munir A. Hanjra 12. Africa's mangrove habitats : prospects and challenges of payment for coastal and marine ecosystem services / Alex Benkenstein and Romy Chevallier 13. Economic instruments for sustainability in Mexico's marine protected areas and the perverse subsidy challenge / Marisol Rivera-Planter, Carlos Munoz-Pina and Mariza Montes de Oca-Leon.