1. Introduction 2. The historical development of the principle of duty and its contemporary philosophical sources 3. The taxonomy of duties 4. Religion, ethics and the principle of lndividual duty 5. Individual criminal responsibility under international law 6. The position of individual duty within the international and regional human rights system 7. Particular individual duties explicitly recognised under international and regional human rights law and by national law 8. Socialism and individual duty 9. Impoverished 'rights talk', the sociology of duty and the re-emergence of communitarianism 10. The enforcement of individual duties 11. Conclusion.