Foreword Preface Acknowledgment Abbreviations Main messages Executive summary Overview Labor markets in the Middle East and North Africa : a low-productivity equilibrium Inefficient and inequitable labor markets : a low-productivity equilibrium Women, youth, and the working poor suffer most from the low productivity equilibrium Where are the barriers? A long-term view of MENA's economies and labor markets The dynamics of the private sector based on privileges rather than competition An institutional framework that reinforces the status quo Unemployable and unemployed : skills gaps and a meritocracy deficit in MENA What are possible policy options? Aligning incentives to invest, innovate, and generate employment Regulatory framework of the labor market : overcoming segmentation Education and training systems : realigning incentives for skills that matter and making employability count The road ahead The political economy of inclusion Appendix: Main data sources.
Bibliography, etc. Note
Includes bibliographical references.